The Madison County Detention Facility is split into three locations, the Main Facility at 815 Wheeler Avenue, Annex 1 located on Fiber Street adjacent to the Main Facility, and the Madison County Courthouse Facility.
The City of Huntsville, the Madison County Commission, and the Madison County Sheriff's Office, in 2002, entered into an Intergovernmental agreement releasing control of the Huntsville City Jail to the Sheriff's Office. This agreement also required that the City of Huntsville build an additional facility adjacent to the existing main facility. Under terms of the agreement, the Sheriff's Office, in 2003, assumed the responsibility of housing all persons arrested by the Madison County Sheriff's Office, the Huntsville Police Department, the Alabama State Troopers, the smaller municipalities in Madison County, and the temporary housing of other prisoners for law enforcement agencies, primarily those of a federal nature.
The existing Detention Facility complex, including all annexes, has a housing capacity of 921 prisoners. The Madison County Detention Facility averages approximately 900 prisoners at any given time. As of the 27th of July, 2006, for example, the inmate population was 895 prisoners, below the authorized capacity.
The City of Huntsville, as stated, has the responsibility of constructing an addition to the Madison County Detention Facility, a project that the city is currently working on, that will give the Madison County Detention Facility an authorized housing capacity of over 1,200 prisoners.